Theories of motivation!


People have heeds!  Some are from everyday life, some in a working environment.  Needs are interwoven with each other.  Needs can be realistic, and unrealistic, but never the less people have some basic needs, and they in bout segments must be pleased.  According to needs we have some theories of needs, and in next text, I will try to explain some of these theories


What do we really need, and what are the motivations that push us through personal and working life?

Needs have been changing over three times, but some needs are always the same.  Basic needs: for surviving, the fundamental needs that an essential for every person’s life.  Civilization has been moving forward, especially in past 20-40 years.  Information, new technologies are changing our lives rapidly.  For better understanding needs, we must go backward and point out some theories of personalities.  It was a hundred years ago, the first theory by Sigmund Freud gives us a good knowledge about peoples’ feelings.  In his theory, he points up three parts of personality: ID, EGO, and SUPER EGO!  Freud’s theory is based on feelings and fear from death, that he calls “Basic fear. “  Although good starting point for  theory of needs, Freud’s theory has a lot of errors, and oversight.  Freud observes man as a single person, as there is no society, and put feelings after all.  He did not look too much in: society, culture, and our background… After Freud many psychologists made different theories of personality: Jung, Adler, Watson, and Fromm.  Erich Fromm’s theory is, one of the best, because he included society.  The fast moving capitalism society, with liberal market that produces new needs, needs that we did not have before.  People have more and more trouble to satisfy mostly materialistic needs, but also needs for success.  The branch of psychology that studied the needs and motivation people in the working environment is“Psychology of Work.”  She defines: motivations, needs, skills, working environment, and the other factors important for the working process.  Psychology of work is large area, so I will explore just one of her field, and those are motivation theories.  Theories made by the scientists like Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland, McGregor, and ext.  There are many theories, but not enough time or space to get into every one of them.  Those four are most important for working environment, and with mixing all good stuff from them, I am hoping to get to some positive conclusion that can be put in practice.  Human resource is a very important resource, so HR management must be able to find a basic frame for satisfaction worker’s needs, and ways to motivate them.  It is complicated to take an individual approach, a person to a person.  The approach needs to be a created for working groups, cultures, companies, etc.  Let us begin with just mentioned theories of satisfaction.

Theories of motivations

I will start is with Abraham Maslow, the American psychologist, creator of the Humanistic Approach.  His theory answered to Taylor’s theory where Taylor puts the money at the first aspect of motivation, in his book Maslow points to couple basic indicators: people are good, and everybody must have free will.  Everyone has an opportunity, and natural predisposition for development, he thought that responsibility is very important. In my opinion, humanistic approach is essential  for a successful framework, but it has shortcomings.  Maslow theory is an answer on Taylor’s theory where money is the only motivation aspect.  Money is a big part of motivation, but not the only one!  Maslow did not mention money at all.  Motivation in the short term is something that is responsible for persisting and strengthening of the individual to accomplish some goal.  Maslow divide needs in high and low needs!

Those needs are:

1) Physiological requirement or the strongest needs, need for surviving, basic needs that every human need.

2)  Security needs or physical and emotional needs, they are very important needs.

3) Social needs like love, belonging, adoption, and security.

4) Respectable needs are needs for self-respect, independence, status, and accomplishment.

According to Maslow when one of the needs is satisfied she stops being motivator and other needs take her place, the need that is not satisfied.

In contrast, of Maslow, theory created bay professor of management Douglas McGregor was totally opposed to Maslow.  He was professor of management so his theory was more for working environment; He was a practical man who proposed two diametrically opposed theories, which according to him were for diametrically opposed types of workers.  Theory X and theory Y, in theory X, he claimed that low needs dominated, and in theory, my high needs are crucial.  Therefore, he divided workers into two groups.  Group X, people that do not like work, they are lazy, all they think is how to avoid work, responsibility, and only think that they care is own safeness with low ambition.  On the other side people in-group Y likes to work, they enjoy in a working environment.  They are dedicated to work, want responsibilities, and there are many new ideas in that group of people.  In my opinion, McGregor had been looking into things to black and white.  McGregor was not a psychologist but management professor, who tried to find an effective theory.  There is no problem if people are a by default in-group X that kind of worker would not stay on the job too long, and the Y workers in other hand will be ideal!  However, it is not that simple!  Problem accrues when good, high knowledge workers get lazy and when they lost stamina and ambition.  In other words, when they become a group X, this is the big issue for HR management.  How to motivate and how to get back on track good workers, what should HR management do, and how?

Fredrick Herzberg the American psychologist develops The Factor theory or the Dual Structure theory.  Like McGregor, he put emphasis on the needs of higher and lower order, but he does not divide people like McGregor.  He put emphasize on an organization to, on a company.  His theory had two basic moments, hygiene factor, or low needs, and they are: pay and benefits, company policy and administration, relationships with co-workers, supervision, status, job security, working conditions, and personal life.  He points that if they were satisfied people would be either satisfied or unsatisfied.  Motivation at work depends on other moments that he calls motivation factor or higher needs, and they : achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, promotion, and growth.  The topic is the motivation for a job, so what must HR management due to stimulate workers?  Hygiene factors are important but emphasizes must put on the motivational factors.  Those are factors that push people in the everyday working routine.

David McClelland theory is the last that in this task, but there are many theories, but I do not have time and space to mention them all.  McClelland claims that certain needs are developing over some period, and that they been shaped during lifetime experience.  He divides heeds in the three major groups.  Needs for achievement; people with this need must accomplish some goal.  They do not put them self in a possibility of any risk, so we can seed that they get something bay playing on safe.  It is good for low-level managers, but not for people who must bring some new ideas, leaders and scientists.  Second need is the need for affiliation; or the need for recognition, to be part of a group.  People with this need, the need to other people  think well of them, and to leave an  impression on other people,  can be good for the sales people,  a person who is in touch with final customer.  Those people have an easy temper, and could deal with a different kind of people.

Last but not the least is the need for power.  This is the need that most leaders have, the need to push people to do something that they would not do by them self.  McClelland divide that needs in two parts; first, one is institutional, good leaders have that need!  They put company, team achievements in front personal achievement.  One of those people was Steve Jobs!  The last is the personal-power need, the need for personal proofing. Need where  people with this need only care for victory, to satisfy their ego, and do not care for worker’s needs,  in many cases, they push workers, company, teams, even hall nations over the edge.




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